The presence of some ions such as calcium and magnesium as well as the presence of divalent or multivalent cations in water will be the main causes of sedimentation as well as foam formation. The high hardness of the water will also cause many problems. Using resin hardeners is a common solution to these problems.
Problems that sedimentation and water hardness cause include:
- Creating foam is the result of a reaction between hard ions in water and detergent. This will create stains on a variety of surfaces.
- Non-solvent and sedimentary of soap materials resulting from the reaction with water high hardness. This reduces the efficiency of the detergents usage.
- In industrial applications, the sedimentary of equipment such as cooling towers, boilers, pipes in various equipment, etc., causes clogging of valves, pipes and so on. This will reduce their efficiency significantly and increase energy consumption.
With the above explanations, the necessity of water softening in both domestic and industrial applications seems to be essential. One of the most common systems for doing this is using a resin softener. In this system, water-soluble calcium and magnesium ions are separated by the ion exchange method with the help of cationic resins. In fact, hard water, which contains calcium and magnesium, is substituted with the sodium with the help of resin and the so-called soft water is produced.